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職稱英語綜合類A級閱讀題理解及答案(17)

2017-03-11 17:50:00 來源:新東方在線

  Silence Please

  Ifthere is one group of workers across the Western world who will be glad that Christmas is over,that group is shop workers.

  It is not that they like to complain.They realize that they are going to be rushed off their feet at Christmas.They know that their employers need happy customers,to make their profits that pay their wages.But there is one thing about working in a shop over Christmas,that is too bad to tolerate.

  That thing is music.These days,all shops and many offices have what is known as.“Piped music1”or “muzak”playing for all the hours that they are open.Muzak has an odd history.During the 1940s,music was played to cows as part of a scientific experiment.Itwas found that cows which listened to simple,happy music produced more milk.Perhaps workers and customers who listened to simple,happy music would be more productive and spend more money.

  In fact,nobody knows what effect playing muzak in shops has on profits.It is simply something that everybody does.But we are learning more about the effect of constantly repeated hearings of songs on the people who have to hear them all the time.

  Research shows that repeated hearings of complex pieces of music bring greater enjoyment before becoming tiresome.And that point come much sooner with simple songs2.

  “That’s especially the case with tunes that are already familiar.Once that tipping point3 is reached,repeated listening become unpleasant,says Professor John Sloboda of UK’s Keele University’s music psychology group.“And the less control you have over what you hear,the less you like it.”

  That’s why police forces in the US often try and resolve hostage situations by playing pop songs over and over again at high volume.Eventually,it.becomes too much for the criminals to stand and they give up.

  The problem gets particularly bad at Christmas,when the muzak consists entirely of the same few festive tunes played over and over again.What makes it worse for the shop workers is that they already know these tunes.They get bored very quickly.Then they get irritated.Then they get angry.

  Shop workers irt Austria recently threatened to go on strike for the right to silence.“Shop workers can’t escape the Christmas muzak.They feel as if they are terrorized all day.Especially ’Jingle Bells4’.It arouses aggressive feelings,”said Gottfried Rieser,of the Austrian shop worker’s union.

  It is not just shop workers who complain.A survey this year by UK recruitment website Retailchoice.com found that Christmas is not only the most testing time for shop workers,but that almost half had complaints from customers about muzak,And the British Royal National Institute for the Deaf estimates that some stores play jingle Bells 300 times each year.

  “That’s acoustic torture,”says Nigel Rodgers of Pipedown,a group against muzak.“It’s not loud but the repetitive nature causes psychological stress.”

  The group wants the government to legislate against unwanted music in stores,hospitals,airports,swimming pools and other public places,claiming it raises the blood pressure and depresses the immune system.

  Perhaps groups like Pipedown don’t really have much to complain about.After all,surely the real point is that people have money to spend.Why complain about a bit of music?

  練習:

  1. The shop workers in the Westem world are glad when Christmas is over because they don’t have to

  A) rush their feet off all day.

  B) listen to the music playing all the time in the shop.

  C) work overtime to make more profits for the boss.

  D) try to please the customers.

  2. It has been proved that listening to simple,happy has a good effect on

  A) cows.

  B) workers.

  C) customers.

  D) bosses.

  3. Which of the following statements is true,according to the research findings reported in paragraph 6.’?

  A) Repeated hearings of complex pieces of music are enjoyable and not tiresome.

  B) Repeated hearings of complex pieces of music are tiresome at first and then become enjoyable.

  C) Repeated hearings of simple songs are more enjoyable than those of complex pieces of music.

  D) Repeated hearings of simple songs become tiresome sooner than those of complex pieces of music.

  4. In hostage situations the US police forces repeatedly play pop songs at high volume in order to

  A) put pressure on the criminals.

  B) distract the attention of the criminals.

  C) keep the criminals awake.

  D) please the criminals.

  5. According to the article,which of the following most appropriately indicates the nature of the effect repeated hearing of the same tune produces on the hearer?

  A) Social.

  B) Physical.

  C) Psychological.

  D) Both physical and psychological.

  答案與題解:

  1. B 答案在文章的開頭就可以找到。第二段的最后一句話和第三段的第一句話講的很清楚。

  2. A 奶牛聽了音樂會多產奶,這是早在二十世紀四十年代就被實驗證明的了。但聽音樂對工人、顧客和利潤有沒有正面的效應,并沒有得到科學的驗證。注意文章的作者在第三段里用了Perhaps這個詞,說明對下面的話持不肯定態度。第四段的第一句話則講得更加明確。

  3. D 答案在第五段里可以找到。先覺得好聽,然后覺得厭煩,這一時刻,聽簡單的歌曲比聽復雜的音樂出現的更快。

  4. A 根據文章所述,在劫持人質的情況下,美國警察常常對罪犯用大音量播放流行歌曲,目的是讓罪犯最終難以承受而放棄劫持。

  5. D 從全文來看,反復聽同一個曲調對聽者產生的影響有心理方面的,也有生理方面的。

     本文選自新東方在線論壇。

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